Newly discovered ergot alkaloids in Sorghum ergot Claviceps africana occurring for the first time in Israel. Shimshoni JA(1), Cuneah O(2). Aust Vet J. Feb;78(2) Sorghum ergot (Claviceps africana) associated with agalactia and feed refusal in pigs and dairy cattle. Blaney BJ(1). PDF | On Jan 1, , S. Bhuiyan and others published Control of ergot ( Claviceps africana) on sorghum seed with fungicides.
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Toxigenic effects of the ingestion of sclerotia of the east strain have been reported in cattle, pigs and poultry Bandyopadhyay et al.
Plant Disease Reporter, 59 9: The 14 C-labelled honeydew from the potted plants was analysed by quantification of the percentage of free D-glucose and total D-fructose after hydrolysis in 1M of TFA. Working Together as an Industry.
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Ergot Disease of Sorghum. New parasitic tissues exuded honeydew weeks after floret inoculation.
This fungus grows on rye and related plants, and produces alkaloids that can cause ergotism in humans and other mammals who consume grains contaminated with its fruiting structure called ergot sclerotium. Later, the sphacelia convert into a hard dry sclerotium inside the husk of the floret.
Field practices aimed at reducing the risk or severity of infection include the removal of clavices panicles at harvest, 3-year crop rotations and deep ploughing of field residues. In practice, ergot bodies float only if there is a large proportion of sclerotial tissue present.
Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Combining some form of host genetic resistance with disease prediction and limited fungicide use during high risk periods may be the best strategy for control in the future.
Ergot – Wikipedia
Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available.
Plant Disease, 90 6: Ergot Claviceps africana or sugary disease of sorghum. Beowulf is alternatively theorized to be translated at ‘bee-wolf’, a kenning for ‘bear’, to reference his berserker bear shirt state. Parmentier wrote in his Journal de Physique of AD that ergot was frequently used by midwives as “a childbed remedy”. Plant Disease, 82 5: Therefore, tolerance of low, pre-flowering temperatures is important for disease avoidance McLaren, When a mature sclerotium drops to the ground, the fungus remains dormant until proper conditions such as the onset of spring or a rain period trigger its fruiting phase.
Unfortunately, this difference will not be apparent to the untrained afircana early in infection.
Sugary disease of sorghum. Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July CS1: During the processes of sucrose catabolism and transformation by the enzymes of the sphacelial mass of C.
The orange-brown portion of each is composed of sclerotial tissues whilst the upper part is residual sphacelial tissue. Reduced serum prolactin is associated with various reproductive problems in cattle, and especially in horses, including agalactia and poor conception, and late-term losses of foals and sometimes mares due to dystocia and thickened placentas. The honeydew produced at intervals of 20h and 40h in the laboratory was collected and evaluated.
Pre-flowering low temperature predisposition of sorghum to sugary disease Claviceps africana. Hulluka M, Gebrekidan B, British author John Grigsby contends that the presence of ergot in the stomachs of some of the so-called ‘bog-bodies’ Iron Age human remains from peat bogs N E Europe such as Tollund Man is indicative of use of ergot in ritual drinks in a prehistoric fertility cult akin to the Eleusinian Mysteries cult of ancient Greece.
In most species of ergot, several sugars are formed in the honeydew, and the resulting higher osmotic concentration in the floral cavity serves to draw in host fluids.
The sclerotial cortex is orange-brown, but may appear superficially pink, orange or red due to adherent floral membranes. These conflicting results reflect the distribution of the two strains of C. Effect of date of sowing on the incidence of ergot of sorghum. Susceptibility to ergot in Zimbabwe of sorghums that remained uninfected in their native climates in Ethiopia and Rwanda.
Claviceps africana Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Claviceps sorghi Claviceps zizaniae Claviceps lutea. Biochemical JournalLondon, v. Ergot was only seen throughout the state on sorghum forages and regrowth, and on Johnson grass, with the resumption of cool temperatures and rains the following winter. Title Honeydew Caption Profuse honeydew exudation and secondary conidiation often renders infected panicles spectacularly white.
Economically significant species include C. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 33 2: The path of infection of sorghum by Claviceps sorghi. Retrieved 9 April Even if only a proportion of inoculum survives to summer, and conidia survive several months Claflin, there will be enough airborne inoculum to initiate new season’s infections within and across international borders.
Quantifying resistance of sorghum genotypes to the sugary disease pathogen Claviceps africana. However, in normal seed store conditions, conidial viability would decline to zero after about 4 months Odvody et al. Passive transmission of sorghum ergot Claviceps africana by four species of adult stink bugs. A b -D-Fructofuranosidase from Claviceps purpurea.
Agalactia of sows caused africna feeding the ergot of the bulrush millet Pennisetum typhoides. In trying to evaluate resistance, simple comparisons of incidence data from genotypes from different localities, following natural infection or artificial africaana, are meaningless McLaren, b because susceptibility to ergot is extremely sensitive to environmental factors at flowering and a few weeks before McLaren and Wehner, ; ; McLaren, ; Montes-Belmont et al.